The modern wedge shoe was developed by Italian shoe maker Salvatore Ferragamo (1898-1960) during the 1930s. Starting in the 1920s, Ferragamo designed stylish, trend-setting shoes for Greta Garbo, Paulette Goddard, Claudette Colbert, Clare Boothe Luce, the Duchess of Windsor and many other women. His footwear was often beautiful and unusual, but he strongly believed that good fit was the most important element of any shoe. In his quest for comfort, Ferragamo studied anatomy and constructed individual foot molds for regular customers. When making high heel shoes, Ferragamo provided firm support by embedding steel shanks in the arch. After Italy's invasion of Ethiopia (Abyssinia) in 1935, the League of Nations imposed economic sanctions on Italy, making it difficult for Ferragamo to obtain steel. This shortage forced Ferragamo to begin crafting shoes from other materials, including springy, supportive cork. This new material became the basis of Ferragamo's famous wedge or wedgie shoe.