Founded in 1903 by architect Josef Hoffman and artist Kolomon Moser, the Wiener Werkstatte (Vienna Workshop) was a group of artists, designers and craftsman dedicated to combining artistry and function in the design and manufacture of everyday objects. Like the 19th century reformers William Morris and Charles Ashbee, the founders of the Wiener Werkstatte believed that mass-production had diminished, if not entirely eliminated, the aesthetic appeal of everyday objects. The overarching goal of the Wiener Werkstatte was to create a gesamtkunstwerk, a total work of art that united architecture, furniture, graphic design, clothing and all other material elements of daily life into a unified and harmonious whole. To this end, Wiener Werkstatte designers reimagined everything from architecture, to furniture, even place settings for the dinner table. By 1928, the Wiener Werkstatte and affiliated designers were producing ceramics, metalwork, bound books, textile patterns, jewelry, lace and other objects. Wiener Werkstatte designs were realized by skilled craftspeople who worked under relatively progressive conditions.